How do plants react to seasonal extremes? Find out more in the new Early View paper “Leaf and stem physiological responses to summer and winter extremes of woody species across temperate ecosystems” by Elena Granda and co-workers. Read Elena’s summary of the study here:
Our paper presents evidence that winter stress in the temperate region is more extreme than summer for forests that do not experience summer droughts, but also for those where summer drought combines with winter freezing. In this study we compiled existing literature to identify overall trends of the impact of seasonal extremes on plant performance (leaf and stem physiological responses). We further compared the general patterns over the temperate region with a continental Mediterranean case study subject to intense summer droughts and winter freezing.
Continental Mediterranean and riparian forests at Alto Tajo Natural Park (Spain) during a) summer drought and b) winter freezing
Although it is known that winter cold limits plant performance, as is also the case for summer drought in dryland ecosystems, our study revealed that across temperate forests: (i) winter is commonly an equal or even stronger stress than summer, including particular cases of Mediterranean vegetation; (ii) many species are able to maintain stomata open during winter, favoring carbon gain over most of the year; (iii) stomatal conductance and xylem hydraulics show a coordinated seasonal response at sites without summer droughts, and (iv) deciduous angiosperms are the most sensitive to climatic stress.
These results suggest that the differences among functional types in seasonal dynamics of physiological performance are strong enough to advocate their importance in determining ecosystem productivity throughout the year, especially in ecosystems where carbon gain is limited to a few months. These patterns present a baseline against which to compare shifts for key plant species and communities with ongoing climate change.