Posted by: oikosasa | April 11, 2014

Haiku on risky dispersal

Have you ever tried to summarize your research in a poem? This haiku summarizes the Early View paper “Population-level consequences of risky dispersal”, by Allison K. Shaw and coworkers.

risky dispersal
whether too much, too little
both suboptimal

to selfishly leave
more or less than the others
may just hurt us all 

Oceans, they scare me
Nearby islands, too, stay far
I prefer it so.

Below, is a more traditional popular summary of the paper:

All living organisms move (disperse) at some point during their life. Many plants produce seeds that disperse away, and the offspring of most animals eventually grow up and move away from their parents. Moving has benefits as well as costs. By moving, an individual can find better food resources, or potential mates. However, by moving an individual also leaves behind familiar areas and faces the risk of possibly never finding a place to settle, or even dying along the way. So for each individual, there is some ‘best’ amount of movement: not too much and not too little.

However, moving individuals can also influence the population they live in: movement determines how spread out the population is across a habitat, and how much movement there is between different areas of the habitat. Therefore, from the perspective of the population, there is also a ‘best’ amount of dispersal. If individuals are spread out across the habitat, this can allow the population to reach a larger size, which increases the probability that the population will persist over time.

The question we ask in this paper is: what is the relationship between the amount of dispersal that is ‘best’ for an individual and the amount that is ‘best’ for the population? If they are not the same, which one is bigger and why?

To answer this question, we built a model (see Figure). We find that generally (1) when the area a population occupies is small, (2) where the habitat can only support a few individuals and (3) when there is a high risk of dying during dispersal, the amount of dispersal ‘best’ for an individual is smaller than the amount ‘best’ for the population. In these cases, the population size would increase if only individuals dispersed more. This suggests that as a conservation strategy for endangered species, restoring habitat may not be enough but may need to be combined with some form of assisted movement.




A schematic of our model. Individuals live in a habitat area of limited size, made up of smaller patches. If individuals disperse (leave the patch where they were born) they can either land successfully in another patch, die during dispersal, or die if they move beyond the habitat edge.





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