How different kinds of ecological aspects affect the future of invasive plants is studied in the Early View paper:“Neighborhood-contingent indirect interactions between native and exotic plants: multiple shared pollinators mediate reproductive success during invasions” by Susan Waters and co-workers. Below is the author’s summary of the study:
In the highly fragmented prairies of western Washington’s Puget Trough, conservation focuses on managing invasive plant species that may directly compete with rare native forbs. However, the area also has a depauperate pollinator community, and the highly overlapping assemblage of generalist pollinators visiting native and exotic dandelion-like forbs suggested to us that native and exotic plants might also interact indirectly through pollinators (for example, by competing for pollinator visits, or by altering the amount of conspecific pollen transferred to a neighbor).
Given that one of the dominant invaders, Hypochaeris radicata, has a patchy distribution, and that pollinators often alter their foraging patterns in response to floral density, we speculated that pollinator-mediated indirect interactions might play out differently in H. radicata-dominated floral neighborhoods than in less-invaded, more diverse floral neighborhoods.
However, further observation soon caused us to suspect that the story was more complex. There were multiple pollinator intermediaries between the plants, and we realized that pollinator groups might differ in their responses to different floral neighborhoods. We hypothesized that there were at least two ways that floral neighborhoods might alter pollinator behavior: either by changing whether pollinators chose to forage in the patch at all, or by changing the foraging decisions pollinators made once they arrived in the patch.
We compared pollinator visitation and seed set by two native forbs and H. radicata in three floral neighborhoods: high density native (and low density H. radicata), high density H. radicata (and low density native) and low density of both H. radicata and natives. Eusocial bees, solitary bees, and syrphid flies all visited the H. radicata and the two native forbs we observed, but the proportion of total visitation to a plant species from each pollinator group depended on the floral neighborhood. Accordingly, dense exotic H. radicata neighborhoods facilitated seed set in one native forb, Eriophyllum lanatum, while diminishing seed set in another native forb, Microseris laciniata. Context-dependent pollinator visitation, mediated by multiple pollinators, thus resulted in opposing effects of an exotic plant on two native species.