Posted by: oikosasa | February 21, 2014

Bottom-up effects of hybridization

A hybridization event at the bottom of the food chain may affect organisms several steps up the chain. Read more in the early View paper: “Bottom–up regulates top–down: the effects of hybridization of grass endophytes on an aphid herbivore and its generalist predator” by Susanna Saari et al. 

Below is their popular summary of the study:

Hybridization is a well understood process where organisms fuse to form new organisms with unique characteristics. However, the ecological consequences of hybridization in the microbial partners of plants are largely unknown. We studied the effects of hybridization of microbial plant symbionts on the feeding preference and performance of herbivores and their natural enemies. In our laboratory experiments, we used the grass Arizona fescue as the host plant, Neotyphodium endophyte as the microbial plant symbiont, the bird cherry-oat aphid as the herbivore and the pink spotted ladybird beetle as the predator. Neither endophyte infection (infected or not infected) nor hybrid status (hybrid or non-hybrid) of the endophyte affected aphid reproduction, aphid host plant preference or body mass of the ladybirds. However, development of ladybird larvae was delayed when fed with aphids grown on hybrid endophyte infected fescue compared to ladybird larvae fed with aphids reared on either non-hybrid infected fescue, non-hybrid, endophyte-removed fescue and hybrid, endophyte-removed fescue.

A pink spotted ladybird and bird cherry-oat aphids on Arizona fescue. In our experiment, pink spotted ladybirds avoided aphids that had been feeding on grasses infected with hybrid Neotyphodium endophytes.

A pink spotted ladybird and bird cherry-oat aphids on Arizona fescue. In our experiment, pink spotted ladybirds avoided aphids that had been feeding on grasses infected with hybrid Neotyphodium endophytes.

Furthermore, adult ladybrids were more likely to choose all other types of fescues harboring aphids rather than hybrid endophyte infected fescues. Our results suggest that the hybridization of microbial symbionts may negatively affect predators such as the pink spotted ladybird and protect herbivores like the bird cherry-oat aphids from predation even though the direct effects on herbivores are not evident.

Neotyphodium endophyte (red lines) growing between the cells (the red circles) of a plant. Endophytes are micro-organisms growing within the tissues of plants without causing any symptoms for the host. Some fungal endophytes can fuse with other fungi growing within the tissues of the host plant thereby forming a hybrid fungus with unique characteristics.

Neotyphodium endophyte (red lines) growing between the cells (the red circles) of a plant. Endophytes are micro-organisms growing within the tissues of plants without causing any symptoms for the host. Some fungal endophytes can fuse with other fungi growing within the tissues of the host plant thereby forming a hybrid fungus with unique characteristics.

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