The first editor’schoice for 2014 is the work of Alexander Kubisch and colleagues. This invited contribution synthesizes how feedbacks between ecological and evolutionary on dispersal shape species ranges and range dynamics. The manuscript is a systematic review on the existing literature and prevailing insights combined with novel modeling approaches to demonstrate the relevance of evolutionary forces at all hierarchical levels of biological organization (from landscapes to communities via populations, individuals and genes) that affect distribution ranges. Since Oikos has been publishing many relevant key-papers in this field, the authors have additionally compiled a virtual issue which will be available in January and which is introduced here. Alexander Kubisch won the Horst-Wiehe-prize at the GfÖ annual meeting for this synthesizing range biology work.
Synthesis: What factors are responsible for the dynamics of species’ ranges? Answering this question has never been more important than today, in the light of rapid environmental changes. Surprisingly, the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of dispersal – which represent the driving forces behind range formation – have rarely been considered in this context. We here present a framework that closes this gap. Dispersal evolution may be responsible for highly complex and non-trivial range dynamics. In order to understand these, and possibly provide projections of future range positions, it is crucial to take the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of dispersal into account.
The second editor’s choice for January is the research paper by Qi and colleagues. They analysed a large trait database involving 1355 species from the northeastern verge of the Tibetan Plateau to test to which degree seed mass is affected by changing abiotic conditions along altitudinal gradients. The analysis of such a large dataset revealed the relevance of two opposing forces, stress tolerance and energy constraints. Subsequently, life history cycles, resource allocation strategies and dispersal agents appeared to be more important drivers in seed mass than pollination efficiency along a pronounced latitudinal gradient. Clearly, only an integrated analysis of the potential drivers of a single trait like seed size may lead to such comprehensive insights.
Synthesis: With increasing elevation, seed mass may be either larger for its advantage during seedling establishment (‘stress-tolerance’ force), or smaller owing to energy constraints. Our paper shows some novel and importance results in the seed mass–elevation relationship in a northeastern Tibetan flora. Firstly, these two opposing forces operate simultaneously but overall balance out one another. Secondly, the balance tends to shift toward increased energy-constraints (stress-tolerance) with the increase (decreased) in average seed mass. Thirdly, energy constraints on seed mass is indirect and mediated by the variation in plant height. Finally, plant resource allocation pattern, life-history cycle, and availability of dispersal agents can affect the responses of seed mass to elevation.